Cargo Calculations & Pipeline system.
Pro-forma (ready to enter data from sextant , chronometer & Star tables)
This is for Laymen viewers........ apologies to "Old Salts"
Bulk Petroleum Products Cargo Calculations Hyams Method No 1
Constants needed to make calculation
1. Known SG at 60°F
2. Temperature of the cargo being loaded
1.Enter the calibration tables for ullage of tank, which will give the number of fresh water tons
2.Multiply the fresh water tons x table 5 correction for temperature error eg 00046
3.Multiply the resulting figure of 2 by the number of degrees that the loading temperature varies from 60°.
4.The resulting tonnage of 3 is then added to 1 fresh water tons.
If the loading temperature is below 60°F abd subtracted if the loading temperature is over 60°F
With new fresh water tons at 60°F the SG at 60°F is multiplied to give the true long tons of oil.
Temperature of oil 107°F at loading
SG = 0.855 at 107°F
Ullage = 2'06' for centre tanks - 2,174 fresh water tons
2,174 x 0043 (volume correction)= 93482
93482 x 47 (temp correction) = - 43.94
SG at 60°F = 0.872 2,130.06
= 1,857,41 oil tons
Observed SG 0.855 x 2174 = 1,858.77 oil tons
1,36 oil tons difference
00036 x 47 = 01692
Obs SG at 107° F = .855
.87192 at 60F = 872
Norries Tables Method
Logarithm of cubic feet =
Plus Logarithm of Norrie constant =
Logarithm of tons = Long tons
Tanker Tables Jensens Enter with SG and cubic feet = long tons
Hyams method No 2
If it is required to know the weight in long tons of given number of cubic feet of oil at 60°F against API at 60°F (API = American Petroleum Institute)
First convert to specific gravity at 60°F by means of table 22 (or table 24 for 15°C) then enter table 8
This method - multiply CU ft at x SG at 60°F = long tons
CU ft to imperial gallons = 6.2288
Imperial gallons to CU ft = 0.160544
SG observed .840 at 86 - 88°F
API - 35.0 or 8499 at 60°F
Ullage = 4'00½ = 49.405 CU ft at 86°F
Temperature difference x temperature correction - X x obs CU ft = volume
26 x 00045 =1170 x 48405 = 566.34
Temp over 60°F
Obs vol 48405 - vol correction 566.34 = 47838.66 vol at 60°F
Temp under 60°F +
SG - 850 (1) = 23.635 x vol at 60°F 47838.66 = 1,130.667 long tons
Norrie Method obs vol x obs SG
By 5 figure logs log of CU ft
+ log of constant for obs SG = ________
Log tons = ________
Oil tons = 1,130.50
Difference = 0.167 tons
We had no electronic computer equipment as aids. Multiplication was done on a small very heavy machine that looked like an old cash register but the digits had metal levers that stood out from the front and one had to push the levers to the required position before cranking the handle on the right the required times and the answer was shown on a small window.
With the metal levers being positive in their location your finger ends became red raw by the time you had completed all the calculations required when loading/discharging/tankcleaning - ballast change operations.
Vessel stress master (by Kelvin Hughes)
This consisted of a large oblong case which when opened had a logitudinal roller which rotated to allow for the ships deadweight to be set. The roller was coloured red areas for excessive HOG/SAG., yellow for short term acceptable and white desirable and a single green line for perfect stress. One of the left side we inserted on a dial the forward tonnages for freshwater/stores etc. and a bead would travel along the roller and end up in a position that indicated the vessels stress condition
Examples of Cargo calculations and Pipeline layout
The British Merchant Navy ships fly the " Red Ensign "
According to The Admiralty Manual of Seamanship Vol 1 1951
in the Chapter on "Flags and their wearing" on page 255 it states:-
"In the Royal Navy the seniority of the commanders of the three squadrons was in the order Red, White, Blue. The senior of these the " RED ENSIGN " was probably allotted to the Merchant Navy as it had been their colours since 1700. The " WHITE ENSIGN "was probably allotted to the Royal Navy because it was the colours under which it sailed in battle since 1800,including the battle of Trafalgar."
Another discussion point settled
To save space, I include the following web pages, now available
which cover the information which we were expected to have at our fingertips for instant recall if we were to do our job properly.
Many sites have illustrations relating to comments in the L.O.F. journal.
Ones which I have subsequently found to be of interest in matters nautical
UNFORTUNATELY I CAN'T GET THESE LINKS TO CONNECT WITH JUST A CLICK but YOU CAN COPY AND PASTE THEM INTO YOUR BROWSER WINDOW AND THEY DO WORK THEN... I've tested them all
These sites include :-
Types of Sailing ships
Ships of the Old Navy
Figurerhead of H.M.S. Blenkeim
Gunboat H.M.S. Heron 1897 ( sister ship to the VIOLET)
Naval Ships of the Line
Johann Van Oberbarnavelt
History of Whaling
Notes on the Sea
International code flags
Semaphore Flag Signalling system
London and Overseas freighters 1948 to 1992
( FOR P.L.S ).
Pacific Steam Navigation Company
Crossing the Line
Steering and Sailing Rules
" " lizard
" " chameleon
Bombay ( Now Mumbai)
www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A808206.html (Enter the name of the port in the Search window)
Beaufort Wind Scale
Windforce - Wave height
Ocean & Seas
Major Oceanic surface Current
FLAGS of the World
Patterns of Loyalty Ranks aboard British ships + Lascars
Suez Canal Crisis
National Service in Aden
The Malayan Emergency 1948 to 1960
. McDonnell RF_101C " Voodoo" ( U.S. Planes which buzzed us off Cuba )