Technical stuff
Cargo Calculations & Pipeline system.
Star sights
Pro-forma (ready to enter data from sextant , chronometer & Star tables)
This is for  Laymen viewers........ apologies to "Old Salts"

Bulk Petroleum Products Cargo Calculations          Hyams Method No 1

Constants needed to make calculation
  1. Known  SG at 60F
  2. Temperature of the cargo being loaded
  3. Ullage

Method
1.Enter the calibration tables for ullage of tank, which will give the number of fresh water tons
2.Multiply the fresh water tons x table 5 correction for temperature error eg 00046
3.Multiply the resulting figure of  2 by the number of degrees that the loading temperature varies from 60.  
4.The resulting tonnage of 3 is then added to 1 fresh water tons. 

If the loading temperature  is below 60F abd subtracted if the loading temperature is over 60F
With new fresh water tons at 60F the SG at 60F is multiplied to give the true long tons of oil
.

Example

Temperature of oil 107F at loading
SG = 0.855 at 107F
Ullage = 2'06' for centre tanks - 2,174 fresh water tons

2,174 x 0043 (volume correction)= 93482
93482 x 47 (temp correction)        =     - 43.94
=   2,174.00
SG at 60F = 0.872      2,130.06
       =  1,857,41 oil tons

or check
Observed SG 0.855 x 2174 = 1,858.77 oil tons
1,36 oil tons difference
00036 x 47             = 01692
Obs SG at 107 F   = .855
         .87192 at 60F = 872        

Norries Tables Method

Logarithm of cubic feet                     =
Plus Logarithm of Norrie constant    =
Logarithm of tons                              =       Long tons

Tanker Tables Jensens            Enter with SG and cubic feet = long tons

Hyams method No 2

If it is required to know the weight in long tons of given number of cubic feet of oil at 60F against API at 60F (API = American Petroleum Institute)

First convert to specific gravity at 60F by means of table 22 (or table 24 for 15C) then enter table 8
This method - multiply CU ft at  x SG at 60F = long tons

CU ft to imperial gallons =  6.2288
Imperial gallons to CU ft = 0.160544

Example

SG observed .840 at 86 - 88F
API - 35.0 or 8499 at 60F
Ullage = 4'00 = 49.405 CU ft at 86F
Temperature difference x temperature correction - X x obs CU ft = volume

26 x 00045 =1170 x 48405 = 566.34

                            Temp over 60F
Obs vol 48405 - vol correction 566.34 = 47838.66 vol at 60F
                            Temp under 60F +

Table 8

SG - 850 (1) = 23.635 x vol at 60F 47838.66 = 1,130.667 long tons

Check
Norrie Method  obs vol x obs SG
By 5 figure logs          log of CU ft
                  +                log of constant for obs SG    =       ________
                                                                  Log tons  =       ________
      Oil tons   =       1,130.50
                                                            Difference    =              0.167 tons

We had no electronic computer equipment as aids.  Multiplication was done on a small very heavy machine that looked like an old cash register but the digits had metal levers that stood out from the front and one had to push the levers to the required position before cranking the handle on the right the required times and the answer was shown on a small window.

With the metal levers being positive in their location your finger ends became red raw by the time you had completed all the calculations required when loading/discharging/tankcleaning - ballast change operations. 

Vessel stress master (by Kelvin Hughes)
This consisted of a large oblong case which when opened had a logitudinal roller which rotated to allow for the ships deadweight to be set.  The roller was coloured red areas for excessive HOG/SAG., yellow for short term acceptable and white desirable and a single green line for perfect stress.  One of the left side we inserted on a dial the forward tonnages for freshwater/stores etc. and a bead would travel along the roller and end up in a position that indicated the vessels stress condition
Examples of Cargo calculations and Pipeline layout
Anchor windlass
                                                    TECHNICAL STUFF

                                  The British Merchant  Navy ships fly the  " Red Ensign "

                        According to The Admiralty Manual of Seamanship   Vol 1   1951
                        in the Chapter on "Flags and their wearing"  on page 255 it states:-

Quote
"In the Royal Navy the seniority of the commanders of the three squadrons was in the order Red, White, Blue. The senior of these the " RED ENSIGN " was probably allotted to the Merchant Navy as it had been their colours since 1700. The " WHITE ENSIGN "was probably allotted to the Royal Navy because it was the colours under which it sailed in battle since 1800,including the battle of Trafalgar."
Unquote
                                    Another discussion point settled

                    To save space, I include the following  web pages, now available
which cover the information which we were expected to have at our fingertips for instant recall if we were to do our job properly.

          Also
                Many sites have illustrations relating  to comments in the L.O.F. journal.
          Or
                Ones which I have subsequently found to be of interest in matters nautical

UNFORTUNATELY  I CAN'T GET THESE LINKS TO CONNECT WITH JUST A CLICK but YOU CAN COPY AND PASTE THEM INTO YOUR BROWSER WINDOW AND THEY DO WORK THEN... I've tested them all

These sites include  :-
Types of Sailing ships
http://www.1cars.eu.org/r.cadwalader/maritime/types.htm

Monkey fist
http://www.realknots.com/knots/faqknot.htm

Traditional Navigation
http://www.ruf.rice.edu/~feegi/traditional2.htm1

Ships of the Old Navy
http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk/INTRO.HTM

Figurerhead of H.M.S. Blenkeim
http://www.nmm.ac.u.../search.pl?exhibit=it3172z

Gunboat H.M.S. Heron 1897 ( sister ship to the VIOLET)
http://history.cc.ukans.edu/~kansite/ww=one/navalimage/heron1897.jpg 
 
Naval Ships of the Line
http://www.cronab.demon.co.uk/gen1.htm

Johann Van Oberbarnavelt
http://people.a2000.nl/aalbrech/johnvanoldenbrnvlt.htm

Modern Whaling
http://www.infoplease.com/corp/about/history.htm

Meteor Showers
www.imo.net

History of Whaling
.../contentlookup.cfm?CFID=11513atCFTOKEN

Notes on the Sea
http://www.cableregina.com/users/shipwreck/index5.htm

PASSAT
http://www.infa.abo.f1/~fredrick/sships/23,htm

Fishing Vessels
http://www.penzance.co.uk/commerce/newlynvessels.htm

International code flags
http://boatsafe.com/nautical/knowhow/flags.htm

Semaphore Flag Signalling system
http://www.anbg.gov.au/flags/semaphore.html

London and Overseas freighters   1948 to 1992
http://www.merchantnavyofficers.com/lof1.html

( FOR P.L.S ).
Pacific Steam Navigation Company
http://fp.redduster.f9.co.uk/PSNC17.htm

Liberty Ships
http://www.armed-guard.com/ag24.html

Crossing the Line
http://www.bbbmedia.com/shellback.htm

Steering and Sailing Rules
http://www.oz.net/~papillion/kbmanual/colregs.html

Albatross
http://www.oceanwings.co.nz/albatross8.htm

Jackass Penguins
http://www.botany.uwc.ac.nz/Presents/Fecuson//penguins

Alligator/Lizards/Chameleon
http://www.zooologicalimports.com/pictures/crocs/alligator1.htm
                          "        "                            lizard
                          "        "                            chameleon

THEM BUGS
http://www.thembugs.com/prodmimicsticks.htm

Sea Snakes
http://cyberreef.com/longfellows/pages/seasnakes-image.htm

Whales
http://wwwO.bbc.co.uk/natureanimals/whale-summerpicpops/largest.shtml

Flyingfish
.../metasearch.asp?MetaEngine=DirectHit@MetaURL=http://%3A%2F%2Fartemis/%2Era%2E%2

Cod
http://www.cnet.windsor.ns.ca?Environment/Advocates/Anim/cod.html

Praying Mantis
www.enchantedlearning.com/subjects/insects/mantis/Prayingmantisprintout.shtml

Beetles
www.thembugs.com/prodbeetles.htm

Volcano
www.iomoon.com/atlantic.html

Lake Maracaibo
www.lakemaracaibo.comright.htm

Athens
www.culture.gr/2/21/211/21101a/e211aaO.html

Bombay     ( Now Mumbai)
www.infoplease.com/ce6/world/A808206.html   (Enter the name of the port in the Search window)

Cloud Types
http://ww2010.atmaos.uiuc.edu/(Gh)/guides/mtr/cld/cldtyp/home.rxml

Icebergs
www.linkumtours.com/iceberg.htm

WaterSpouts
http://Kabb.com/weather/wx-sww-waterspouts.htm

Jupiter
www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0004456.html

Nebula Gallery
http://oposite.stsci.edu/pubinfo/pr/97/38/b-js.html

Beaufort Wind Scale
www.r-p-r.co.uk/beaufort.htm

Windforce - Wave height
http://marine.cub.gov.tw/CWBMMC/windwaveE.html

Beaufort SeaScale
http://www.wirwood.co.uk/beaufort_scale_ html

Ocean & Seas
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0001773.html

Sargasso Sea
http://va.essortment.com/sargassoseawid_ramo.htm

Major Oceanic surface Current
http://www.acl.lanl.gov/GrandChal/GCM/currents.html

Tides
http;//www.hydrographicsociety.org/Publications/special/sp30.htm 

FLAGS of the World
http://www.infoplease.com/ipa/A0772159.html

Patterns of Loyalty    Ranks aboard British ships + Lascars
http://www.lascars.co.uk/pladec1957.html

Suez  Canal Crisis
http://novaonline.nv.cc.va.us/eli/evans/his135/modules/events/suez56.htm

National Service in Aden
http://www.pharmj.com?Editorial/19991218/articles/aden.html

The Malayan  Emergency  1948 to 1960
http://home1.pacific.net.sg/~alfarabi/malayan.htm

.  McDonnell   RF_101C  " Voodoo"  ( U.S. Planes which buzzed us off  Cuba )
http://www.wpafb.af.mil/museum/modern_flight/mf55.htm